Egypt, the Aegean and the Levant : Interconnections in the Second Millennium Bc
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Resulting from an international colloquium held at the British Museum in 1992, this book is largely devoted to the subject of Egypt's relations with the Mediterranean world in the second millennium BC. The implications of the remarkable discoveries at Tell el-Dab'a, the site of ancient Avaris (the Hyksos capital of Egypt), form the primary focus, with papers on Egypt's connections with Cyprus and Minoan Crete, and chronological problems also discussed. These are placed in a wider context by further contributions on Egypto-Minoan relations in general, on the evidence for Mycenaeans in Egypt and the presence of Orientalia at Mycenae, on Aegean influence in Egypto-Canaan, on the sources of Egyptian copper and on the nature of foreign timber imports into Egypt.
tlus region. Contrary to the scarcity of evidence for the ancient exploitation of copper in the Eastern Desert, Sinai has often been quoted as an ancient source. A E Thomas wrote in 1909, 'As far as is known, the chief ancient copper workings from which the Egyptians obtained ore for their bronze implements are in the south of the Sinai Peninsula, and Absciel and Hammamid in the Eastern Desert.' However, further on he states that 'Care ful study of the copper mines, taken with the estimate of
Deutsches Archao1ogisches Institut Abteilung Kairo, Sonderschrift 14. Mainz am Rhein, Verlag Philipp von Zabern. Germer R, 1986. Zeder. In W HeIck and W Westendorf (eds.), Lexikon der Agyptologie VI. Wiesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz, 1357-8. Germer R, 1988. Katalog der altligyptischen Pjlanzenreste der Berliner Museen. Agyptologische Abhandl ungen, 47. Wiesbaden, Otto Harrassowitz. Germer R, 1989. Die Pjlanzenmaterialien aus dem Grab des Tutanchamun. Hildesheimer Agyptologische Beitrage, 28.
situation at Tell el-Dab'a has a paral lel on a somewhat smaller scale at Tel Kabri (in north ern Israel). Recent excavations by Aaron Kempinski and Wolf Dietrich Niemeier have revealed fragments of wall- and floor-paintings of Minoan rather than Near Eastern style and technique.!S A pattern of grid-lines with traces of plants between decorated the threshold of the palace. The most recent excavations have re vealed numerous fragments of miniature scenes with close parallels to the subjects of
picture in the Late Bronze Age is drastically dif fe nt. The narrow-necked juglets of the preceding Middle Bronze Age largely disappear - a few exam pie' per ist (Fig. 12,21·22). Bichrome ware (Fig. 12, 8) of ypriot, Palestinian and Egyptian origin appears at the transitional period and is a ware in which several tlery tyle from different areas are brought together, manufactured and distributed throughout the Levant. Th' 'xpanded Cypriot component, however. monopo lizes the circulation with
precision ftheAAS technique is typically about 1-2% relative formo 't major and minor components and 10-50% rela UV for trace components, this depending on how I Iy the measured concentration approaches the deUon lImit. Adescription of the procedures employed th material from Jericho is provided elsewhere aliI 1980,55-7). The data- ets arc compared by means of a series of pIe plot, namely histograms for the display of sin ariables, and scatterplots where it is desired to Ileat the r lationship