Empire of Ancient Greece (Great Empires of the Past)
Jean Kinney Williams
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The classical Greek civilization is the cornerstone of Western civilization today. The Greeks invented and developed everything from logic and democracy to rhetoric, drama, and philosophy. "Empire of Ancient Greece, Revised Edition" chronicles the remarkable legacy of the Greeks, as well as the diversity of their societies - from the thriving democracy of Athens to the militarism of Sparta to the oligarchy of Thrace. It explores the conditions that made it possible for the ancient Greeks to develop a culture that set the foundation for our intellectual lives today, and explains why Greek power eventually declined. Everyday life in ancient Greece, from the wealthy citizens who grappled in the Olympic arena to the farmers who found 50 different ways to use olive oil, is also examined. Connections in our own world to the ancient Greeks are numerous, including the Olympics, much of our classical literature, the scientific method, architecture, and many English words.
choice for the position: He was born into the aristocratic class but was not personally wealthy, and he strove for a fairer balance between Athenian society’s top and bottom layers. An intellectual and a poet, Solon restored control of confiscated land to the poor and abolished enslavement to collect debts; all peasants who had sold themselves into slavery for indebtedness were declared free. Use of the death penalty was primarily reserved for the crime of murder. More importantly, any male
City-States Jockey for Power As Athenian philosophers pondered virtue and justice after the end of great conflict between Athens and Sparta, the Greek world was still finding reasons to make war—although that warfare was changing. As Athens, Sparta, and Thebes spent the next 60 years vying for the position of top polis, often switching alliances, Athens and Sparta had to make do with fewer farmer-citizens filling the hoplite ranks and more mercenary soldiers and armed slaves. Athens had to
the wealthiest male citizens could hold political office. Middle-class Greeks could vote in the assemblies, but the poorest citizens could not. In their book Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History, Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts write that the history of Greece from 700 to 500 B.C.E. “is the struggle of the middle and lower classes to gain an equal share in the governance of their poleis.” Their THE ETHNOS City-states did not
exclude or ignore someone who has upset other group members. During the time of Ephialtes’s reform, Pericles was a major supporter of democracy, and he became the most influential Athenian leader during the Classical period of Greek history. In his History of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides called Pericles “the leading man of his time among the Athenians and the most powerful both in action and in debate.” He was one of 10 strategoi, the men elected to direct military affairs in Athens.
65, 96 Herophilus 108–109 Hesiod 8, 20, 73, 75, 92 Hestia 84 Hippocrates 65, 108, 112 126 history oral tradition 8, 20, 76, 77, 91 pottery as 97–98 recording 96 Hittites 5, 16 Homer 5, 76, 91–92, 120. See also The Iliad; The Odyssey hoplites economics of using 32 overview 15, 23, 24–25, 120 during the Peloponnesian War 35, 36 shift in social attitude due to 56 use of slaves 66 The Iliad 8, 16, 19, 20, 48, 91–92, 97 India 50, 113 Ionia 17, 27, 29, 50, 61, 102, 103 Iran 113 Iraq 49 Islamic Empire