Greece in the Making 1200-479 BC (The Routledge History of the Ancient World)
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Greece in the Making 1200–479 BC is an accessible and comprehensive account of Greek history from the end of the Bronze Age to the Classical Period. The first edition of this book broke new ground by acknowledging that, barring a small number of archaic poems and inscriptions, the majority of our literary evidence for archaic Greece reported only what later writers wanted to tell, and so was subject to systematic selection and distortion. This book offers a narrative which acknowledges the later traditions, as traditions, but insists that we must primarily confront the contemporary evidence, which is in large part archaeological and art historical, and must make sense of it in its own terms.
In this second edition, as well as updating the text to take account of recent scholarship and re-ordering, Robin Osborne has addressed more explicitly the weaknesses and unsustainable interpretations which the first edition chose merely to pass over. He now spells out why this book features no ‘rise of the polis’ and no ‘colonization’, and why the treatment of Greek settlement abroad is necessarily spread over various chapters. Students and teachers alike will particularly appreciate the enhanced discussion of economic history and the more systematic treatment of issues of gender and sexuality.
have to play alongside a wide range of others. Whatever stimulated Greeks to upgrade the earlier periodic contacts with the area and settle in numbers, it was not economic pressure on, or the political initiative of, one city, let alone one man. Archaeology and literary texts almost always pull against one another. Literary texts, and the oral or written traditions on which any particular text relies, pick out whatever is of use for their argument, tend to stress the peculiar, and are
were equally wealthy; it is very likely that the wealthy buried themselves separately, and that the burials of the poor have not been recovered, but the burials we know do suggest that wealth was not narrowly distributed, and also that prestige was, in some degree at least, connected with the ability to fight. During the early ninth century bc, contact with Athens seems to have been reduced once more, but contact with the east was maintained. Athens pioneered a new pottery style, known as early
1.4.1 13 Iliad 14. 402–6 14 Hesiod, Theogony 176–92 15 Kingship in Heaven Col. 1.18–35 16 Hesiod, Works and Days 213–27 17 Hesiod, Works and Days 630–40 18 Odyssey 11.435–53 19 Odyssey 2.25–34 20 Iliad 17.262–8 21 Iliad 2. 185–205 22 Odyssey 9.106–15 23 Homeric Hymn to Apollo 143–50 24 Tyrtaios frg. 10 (West) 15–20 25 Plutarch Lykourgos 6.1–8 26 Alkman, frg. 1.36–56 27 Theognis 101–12 28 Alkaios 69 29 Diogenes Laertios, Lives and Opinions of the Eminent
discovery of Bronze Age remains at Troy, Mycenae, and elsewhere. However, as those discoveries also showed, the places and objects described in the poems will in many cases have been entirely unfamiliar to any audience of the Homeric poems. Such descriptions owe their existence in the poems not to the pleasure of a shock of recognition, but to the ability to conjure up a lost world which stimulated critical thought about the present situation, just as the entirely mythical world of the golden
change in Sparta in the late eighth century bc, or of a series of changes which successively elaborate both the political and the social structure, there seems good reason to believe that life in Sparta was transformed between, say, 725 and 625 bc. By the late seventh century it is probable that there was already in place something like the full classical apparatus of military organisation, involving a variety of military units – tribes and obes, lokhoi, There is such a thing as the gods’