Language and Logos: Studies in Ancient Greek Philosophy Presented to G. E. L. Owen
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The essays in this volume were written to celebrate the sixtieth birthday of G. E. L. Owen, who by his essays and seminars on ancient Greek philosophy has made a contribution to its study that is second to none. The authors, from both sides of the Atlantic, include not only scholars whose main research interests lie in Greek philosophy, but others best known for their work in general philosophy. All are pupils or younger colleagues of Professor Owen who are indebted to his practice of philosophical scholarship as a first-order philosophical activity. At the heart of G. E. L. Owen's work has been a preoccupation with the role of philosophical reflection on language in the metaphysics and epistemology of Plato, Aristotle and other ancient Greek thinkers. This is accordingly the general topic of the present volume, which includes five papers on Plato's critical dialogues and seven on Aristotle, prefaced by two on Heraclitus and followed by a study of the debate in Hellenistic philosophy on the sorites. This is a book for specialists in Greek philosophy and philosophers of language which will also be of interest to some linguists.
and traditional beliefs; (c) much of traditional Greek religion; (d) the older accepted authorities, Homer and Hesiod; (e) more recent claimants of such diverse kinds as Archilochus, Xenophanes, Hecataeus and Pythagoras. Against all these, and in support of his own account of the world, Heraclitus appeals in the first place to the evidence of the senses. 'All of which the learning is seeing and hearing, to that I give preference' (B55).2 But sense-perception by itself is not enough; to suppose
is not in itself very impressive. But it can be combined with the fragments exhibiting some sort of'unity in opposites' in situations of ordinary life; the interpretation is controversial (see 2.2 below), but on any tenable interpretation the moral Heraclitus intends is not that the different sense-experiences are mistaken or merely relatively true, but that every experience contributes an essential part of the truth. From acceptance of the Rule of No Cancellation it follows that all
nourished by the one divine one.'Just what relationship is intended here is obscure; and in any case the cosmic 'justice' or 'law' is not obviously on the side of either the better or the worse forces in the cosmos. When good men become, after death, 'Guardians of living and of corpses' (B63) some kind of cosmic collaboration is suggested, as it is also by the orderly army of the stars. The cosmic intelligence might be constituted, along the lines of a city, as a collectivity of individual
Gwil Owen's honour on some quite different subject say, Greek science and philosophy of science - no less close to his heart. So this book is dedicated to him with the good wishes, expressed by many to the editors, of a much greater number of pupils and others, on both sides of the Atlantic, than are assembled between these covers. Our thanks go to all who have helped us by their co-operation or advice, particularly our publisher Jeremy Mynott, who has made the project possible. M. S. M. C. N.
Philosophical Review, 80 (1971), 448-75. Aristotle and the more accurate arguments 167 (OM) For any set of F things, there is exactly one form, the F, predicated of the members of that set. (NI) The form F is different from any of the F things of which it is predicated. That these three assumptions are at least sufficient for generating the regress can be seen as follows. Suppose we form a set of large things. By (OM), there is exactly one form, the Large, predicated ofthe members of this