NATO's Secret Army: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe (Contemporary Security Studies)
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The CIA and the British secret service MI6, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services set up a network of clandestine anticommunist armies in Western Europe after World War II. The secret soldiers were trained on remote islands in the Mediterranean and in unorthodox warfare centers in England and in the United States by the Green Berets and SAS Special Forces. The network was armed with explosives, machine guns and high-tech communication equipment hidden in underground bunkers and secret arms caches in forests and mountain meadows. In some countries, the secret army linked up with right-wing terrorists who in a secret war engaged in political manipulation, harassment of left wing parties, massacres, coup d'etats and torture.
Codenamed "Gladio" ('the sword'), the Italian secret army was exposed in 1990 by Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti to the Italian Senate, whereupon the press spoke of the "the best kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II" (Observer, 18. November 1990) and observed that "The story seems straight from the pages of a political thriller." (The Times, November 19, 1990). Ever since, so-called 'stay-behind' armies of NATO have also been discovered in France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Greece and Turkey. They were internationally coordinated by the Pentagon and NATO and had their last known meeting in the NATO-linked Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) in Brussels in October 1990.
told the General, 'I have deep suspicions about the civilian extension of that department.' The General assured him, 'The civilians work very honestly, very faithfully. There is nothing to be afraid of.' Ecevit insisted, 'Simply as a hypothesis, it's quite possible, General, that one of those lifetime patriots might at a certain later date become the party chief of the National Action Party MHP which is involved in right-wing terrorism in this very town.' 'Yes, this is the case', the
preemptive wars abroad. 300 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Note: All sources used in this book are indicated in the endnotes. This selected bibliography lists only books that deal with Operation Gladio or other stay-behind armies. Agee, Philip and Wolf Louis, Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe (Secaucus: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1978) Bale, Jeffrey McKenzie, The 'Black' Terrorist International: Neo-Fascist Paramilitary Networks and the 'Strategy of Tension' in Italy, 1968-1974. UMI Dissertation
upon entering the United States at the Customs Area of Houston Airport, Texas, on April 17, 1997.49 Mainly based on interviews, and focusing almost exclusively on Gladio in Italy and Belgium, Francovich's BBC documentaries feature in front of the camera such key Gladio players as Licio Gelli, head of the P2, Italian right-wing activist Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Venetian judge and Gladio discoverer Felice Casson, Italian Gladio commander General Gerardo Serravalle, Senator Roger Lallemand, head
in the midst of an anti-Fascist demonstration, killing eight and injuring and maiming 102. On August 4, 1974 another bomb exploded on the Rome-to-Munich train Ttalicus Express', killing 12 and injuring and maiming 48. The atrocities culminated on a sunny afternoon during the Italian national holiday when on August 2, 1980 a massive explosion ripped through the waiting room of the second class at the Bologna railway station, killing 85 people in the blast and seriously injuring and maiming
was to sow terror', journalist Davison observed, 'the killers chose the perfect targets: Women, children and the elderly, cut down by rapid gunfire while wheeling their trolleys through a local supermarket.'93 In this chain of command WNP right-wing extremist Michel Libert was on the lower end. He 144 received his orders from WNP commander Paul Latinus. 'It is cleat that Latinus is one of the most interesting pieces of the puzzle in order to understand the political-juridical mysteries of