Shadow Warfare: The History of America's Undeclared Wars

Shadow Warfare: The History of America's Undeclared Wars

Larry Hancock, Stuart Wexler

Language: English

Pages: 368

ISBN: 1619022443

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Contrary to its contemporary image, deniable covert operations are not something new. Such activities have been ordered by every president and every administration since the Second World War. In many instances covert operations have relied on surrogates, with American personnel involved only at a distance, insulated by layers of deniability.

Shadow Warfare traces the evolution of these covert operations, detailing the tactics and tools used from the Truman era through those of the contemporary Obama Administrations. It also explores the personalities and careers of many of the most noted shadow warriors of the past sixty years, tracing the decade-long relationship between the CIA and the military.

Shadow Warfare presents a balanced, non-polemic exploration of American secret warfare, detailing its patterns, consequences and collateral damage and presenting its successes as well as failures. Shadow Wars explores why every president from Franklin Roosevelt on, felt compelled to turn to secret, deniable military action. It also delves into the political dynamic of the president’s relationship with Congress and the fact that despite decades of combat, the U.S. Congress has chosen not to exercise its responsibility to declare a single state of war - even for extended and highly visible combat.













led to the establishment of covert American military support for the Congolese army, including who influenced the decision making and how the directives were officially issued.326 We know what happened, but we don’t have the paper trail or even the oral history to determine exactly who proposed the action, or who gave the orders. What is certain is that in mid-1962, in Miami, a Cuban veteran of the Bay of Pigs, Roberto Medell, was approached by the CIA and asked to help recruit and organize a

Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) at Fort Detrick, Maryland. The CIA’s Chemical Division was headed by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb of CIA Technical Services and it utilized the staff of Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division (SOD) both for the production of lethal and nonlethal toxins and work on developing delivery systems. In 1950 the Agency established an informal agreement with the Special Operations Division to pursue a variety of designated projects including lethal chemicals. Initial

War. The entire region lying between India and China had long been subject to cultural influence from both countries, but in the 1800s French colonial efforts had created an artificial political unit of Indochina (the Indochinese Union) out of the ancient nations of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. That union was shattered by the Japanese seizure of Indochina during the Second World War, in particular the occupation of Vietnam and Laos. In World War II, well before any artificial North–South

Florida. Reportedly he participated in a number of interim missions and went into a holding mode following the Bay of Pigs landing fiasco.275 Both Hawkins and Esterline did make one final, last-minute effort to express their objections, after working furiously to prepare a new plan and relocating the landing site from the Trinidad region to the Bay of Pigs. The two military officers had concluded that while they might seize the beachhead, it would be virtually impossible to extend the force

January 1961 file that refers to Frank (Fiorini) Sturgis. Sturgis had a prior history with proposals to assassinate Castro. He had helped supply Castro’s forces during the revolution against Batista, and later had been in the field during the revolt. He was awarded with a variety of command positions in the new regime, taking charge of a parachute unit at one point. While still in Cuba and in his Cuban military position, Sturgis had approached the CIA with an offer to assassinate Castro in 1959;

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