The Origins of Totalitarianism, Part 2: Imperialism
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This middle volume focuses on the curious and cruel epoch of declining European colonial imperialism from 1884 to the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. Index.
1, 1962. Thring. Lord Henry, Suggestions for Colonial Reform, 1865. Tirpitz, Alfred von, Erinnerungen, 1919. Tocqueville, Alexis de, “Lettres de Alexis de Tocqueville et de Arthur Gobineau,” Revue des Deux Mondes, vol. 199, 1907; L’Ancien Régime et la Révolution, 1856. Tonsill, Ch. C.. “Racial Theories from Herder to Hitler,” Thought, vol. 15. 1940. Townsend, Mary E., Origin of Modern German Colonialism, 1871–1885, New York, 1921; Rise and Fall of Germany’s Colonial Empire, New York, 1930;
without giving them the master’s prerogative: the possible creation of something new. Monopolistic concentration and tremendous accumulation of violence at home made the servants active agents in the destruction, until finally totalitarian expansion became a nation- and a people-destroying force. Power became the essence of political action and the center of political thought when it was separated from the political community which it should serve. This, it is true, was brought about by an
turn to those with surplus food and surplus technological and political knowledge, it is also this same factor which defeats all help. Obviously, the larger the population the less help per capita it will receive, and the truth of the matter is that after two decades of massive help programs all the countries that had not been able to help themselves to begin with—like Japan—are poorer, further away from either economic or political stability than ever. As for the chances of imperialism, this
Europe’s political system to lay bare its hidden frame. Such visible exposures were the sufferings of more and more groups of people to whom suddenly the rules of the world around them had ceased to apply. It was precisely the seeming stability of the surrounding world that made each group forced out of its protective boundaries look like an unfortunate exception to an otherwise sane and normal rule, and which filled with equal cynicism victims and observers of an apparently unjust and abnormal
had been forced out of their countries by revolutions, and were promptly denationalized by the victorious governments at home. To this group belong, in chronological order, millions of Russians, hundreds of thousands of Armenians, thousands of Hungarians, hundreds of thousands of Germans, and more than half a million Spaniards—to enumerate only the more important categories. The behavior of these governments may appear today to be the natural consequence of civil war; but at the time mass