The Reader's Companion to American History

The Reader's Companion to American History

John A. Garraty

Language: English

Pages: 1248

ISBN: 0395513723

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

The Reader's Companion to American History offers a fresh, absorbing portrait of the United States from the origins of its native peoples to the nation's complex identity in the 1990s. Covering political, economic, cultural, and social history, and combining hundreds of short descriptive entries with longer evaluative articles, the encyclopedia is informative, engaging, and a pleasure to read. The Reader's Companion is sponsored by the Society of American Historians, an organization dedicated to promoting literary excellence in the writing of biography and history. Under the editorship of the eminent historians John A. Garraty and Eric Foner, a large and distinguished group of scholars, biographers, and journalists -- nearly four hundred contemporary authorities -- illuminate the critical events, issues, and individuals that have shaped our past. More than a reference book to be consulted simply for the dates or details of an event, the Companion offers a history of ideas. It distinguishes itself from conventional encylcopedias by featuring several hundred thematic articles. A chronological account of immigration, for example, is complemented by a conceptual article on ethnicity. Similarly, the Bull Moose party and the Know-Nothings, examined in individual entries, are also placed within a larger context in an article on third parties in American politics. And readers consulting entries on specific religious groups, leaders, and movements will be led to an article offering an overview of religion in America. Linking discrete facts, dates, and events through its interpretive essays, the Reader's Companion presents the overarching themes and ideas that have animated our historical landscape. Over the past twenty years, the study of history has undergone a metamorphosis. Political history, once the primary avenue for exploring the past, has given way to the "new social history." Focus has shifted from key events and leaders to everyday life in America, including the history of the family, women and the work force, race relations, and community life. The Reader's Companion to American History reflects this broader vision of our past. Interweaving traditional political and economic topics with the spectrum of America's social and cultural legacies -- everything from marriage to medicine, crime to baseball, fashion to literature -- the Companion is certain to engage the curiosity, interests, and passions of every reader.



















Canada of the degree of American influence. By the mid-1970s, concerns over alleged American domination of Canadian energy resources and industry and the pervasiveness of the U.S. media in Canada led to measures to limit foreign investment, particularly in the oil industry, develop trade links beyond North America, and establish an arm’s-length posture toward the United States. After 1984, however, relations became less contentious. The Canadian government, alarmed by growing protectionist

in the Union slave states that had been exempted from the proclamation. So the party committed itself to a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery. The overwhelmingly Republican Senate passed the Thirteenth Amendment by more than the necessary two-thirds majority on April 8, 1864. But not until January 31, 1865, did enough Democrats in the House abstain or vote for the amendment to pass it by a bare two-thirds. By December 18, 1865, the requisite three-quarters of the states had ratified the

the ideal of the small, thin body type as well as delicate facial features and a pale skin reflective of Victorian domesticity and repressive sexual attitudes. Concomitantly, the popularity of tight lacing to achieve the smallest possible waist related to women’s oppression. On the other hand, when combined with bust enlargers, or “falsies” (similarly popular throughout the century), tight lacing also related to the countervailing desire of women to appear sexually attractive to men. Moreover,

Politically, he affiliated with Ohio’s Old Guard Republicans and with their support was elected to two terms in the state senate (1900–1904) and one as lieutenant governor (1904–1906). He lost the gubernatorial contest in 1910 but was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1914. As senator, he was noted for his affability, party regularity, and skills as a political harmonizer. But he demonstrated few leadership qualities and had no important legislation identified with his name. In 1919 Ohio political

scores of variations on a basic prototype were built in cities around the country. At the turn of the century private business organizations prodded municipalities to build majestic civic centers. Washington, D.C., underwent such a change in 1902, epitomizing the fascination with comprehensive urban design. In San Francisco, Denver, Chicago, and dozens of other cities, large and small, the City Beautiful movement commissioned Beaux-Arts museums and libraries alongside new city halls for the

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