Tories: Fighting for the King in America's First Civil War
Thomas B. Allen
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From historian Thomas B. Allen, author of Remember Pearl Harbor and George Washington, Spy Master comes a sweeping, dramatic history of the Americans who fought alongside the British on the losing side of the American Revolution. Allen’s compelling account comprises an epic story with a personal core, an American narrative certain to spellbind readers of Tom Fleming, David McCullough, and Joseph Ellis. The first book in over thirty years on this topic in Revolution War history, Tories incorporates new research and previously unavailable material drawn from foreign archives, telling the riveting story of bitter internecine conflict during the tumultuous birth of a nation.
Charleston, the largest Continental force in the South was a detachment of about 350 Virginians commanded by Col. Abraham Buford. He was ordered to go to an American outpost at Camden, South Carolina, carry off what he could, destroy the rest, and then take his men to North Carolina. Tarleton and 270 men pursued Buford. On May 29, 1780, they caught up with him at the Waxhaws, as the settlement near Wax-haw Creek was called, about twelve miles north of Lancaster, South Carolina.41 Tarleton,
Gage, Headquarters, Cambridge, August 11, 1775; General Gage to General Washington, Boston, August 13, 1775. American Archives, Correspondence, Proceedings, Etc. http://colet.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/a march/documentidx.pl?subpart_id = S4-V3-P01-sp01&sortorder=doc_id; accessed 3/25/2010. 51. Frothingham, History of the Siege of Boston, p. 235. 52. David C. Hsiung, “Food, Fuel, and the New England Environment in the War for Independence, 1775–1776,” essay at University of Georgia Workshop in
jail-cell autobiographical writing. Jones (vol. 1, p. 175) says that after Mrs. Dunbar was forced to witness the hanging she sought refuge in Middletown with paroled Loyalists, who included former New Jersey governor William Franklin. She was ordered out of town but taken in by a Loyalist family. After giving birth, she and the baby, named after his father, escaped to New York. 87. New York Gazette & Mercury, June 23, 1777., as cited by Villers, “Loyalism in Connecticut, 1763–1783,” p. 254.
Tories in another long letter that same year. From 1765 to 1775, he wrote, the British government “formed and organized and drilled and disciplined a party in favor of Great Britain, and they seduced and deluded nearly one third of the people of the colonies.” In that letter, to the Reverend Jedediah Morse, an author of geography textbooks, Adams went on to say that “many men of the first rank, station, property, education, influence, and power, who in 1765 had been real or pretended Americans,
Hale profoundly changed Washington’s attitude about the gathering of intelligence. Instead of relying entirely on military officers, he would use civilians, primarily Patriots who could spy while posing as Tories.93 Eventually, Washington would oversee an elaborate and productive spy network centered on New York City. Fearing that Howe would attack him from the rear, Washington decided to withdraw from Manhattan, leaving a force behind at Fort Washington, near the northern end of the island, to